How did the Colombian Stock Exchange shape food culture in the modern world?
Can you imagine Kansas without wheat fields, Italy without marinara sauce, or Spain without gazpacho? Wheat, tomatoes, chili peppers, and many other foods were transported between the Old and New Worlds, the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, after Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492. This transfer of food, as well as other plants, animals, humans, and diseases, is now known as the Columbian Exchange. The contact between Europe and America resulted in a fantastic variety of foods available around the world. Cows, for example, were introduced to America by Europeans. Rather, the turkeys were transported from America to Europe. The exchange brought potatoes from South America to Ireland and tomatoes from America to Italy. And while the exchange initially affected European and American ways of life, the peoples of Africa and Asia were soon affected as well. The Portuguese provided two of many examples: they brought chili from South America to India and corn to Africa in the early 16th century. In less than a century, the way food is produced and transported around the world has changed radically. With the discovery of the New World, Europe secured vast tracts of fertile land suitable for growing popular crops such as sugar, coffee, soybeans, oranges, and bananas. After the introduction of these plants, America quickly became the main supplier of these foods to most of the world.
Plants and animals were not the only biological matter transferred between continents. The increasing interactions between Europeans and Native Americans also allowed for a rapid exchange of diseases. Outbreaks of new diseases such as syphilis first appeared outside of America. Smallpox, among other diseases, devastated the indigenous peoples of the New World, killing at least half the population in the 150 years after Columbus' first voyage.
The desire to control these newly discovered foods and other natural resources has had dramatic consequences for humankind. In an effort to produce and transport new foods, European empires struggled to claim lands in the New World, which influenced culture, language, religion, and politics in America for centuries. In addition, the desire to grow valuable crops, acquire valuable resources, and transport them around the world led to the rapid spread and transport of enslaved populations from Africa to the Americas.
European impressions of New World foods
European explorers wrote extensive descriptions of their voyages and impressions of their new surroundings in America. Almost no detail was too small; They described people, environments, customs, manners, events, clothing, food and much more. As more people crossed the Atlantic, more New World stories became available to European readers in a variety of formats. Artists also traveled to America and were hired to create artistic renderings of explorers' accounts.
Food in particular was fascinating to Europeans in the New World, and descriptions of food and native cooking and eating habits formed a large part of travelogues. While many plants and animals were recognizable, Europeans often noticed that in America they appeared larger and more vigorous. However, many provisions were completely new to the explorers and later to the settlers. The exoticism of foods like corn and bananas was enhanced by the way indigenous peoples prepared and consumed their food. Dozens of stories, in both text and pictures, describe foods we are now familiar with, such as corn, potatoes, chili peppers, squashes, cassava, prickly pears, plantains, cocoa, turkey, and a variety of other fish foods.
The above excerpts from the travelers' accounts show the fascination of America. Thomas Hariot, Theodor de Bry, and Samuel Purchas were known for their published accounts, although Hariot was the only one to have traveled to the New World. Hariot's book focused on his recollections of his voyage to Virginia beginning in 1585. De Bry and Purchas based their descriptions and pictures on first-hand accounts of expeditions across America, from the Strait of Magellan to Newfoundland and beyond.
Europeans are embracing and adapting new foods
The Americas are a vast amount of land. The climate and environment vary greatly by location; Consequently, the plants and animals available for human consumption also vary. Because explorers and travelers to the New World were associated with certain European kingdoms and claimed land on behalf of those kingdoms, they brought back to Europe various information about the peoples and foods of their newfound land. Consequently, the introduction of New World foods into European cuisines has been patchy.
Some foods became very popular and quickly spread across Europe, such as chocolate, the product made from cocoa and tobacco, which were sometimes considered food or medicine at the time. Other foods like potatoes took a long time to gain popularity in the Old World. Some kingdoms initially embraced the food more readily than others, such as tomatoes in Spain and Italy and turkey in France and England. Other New World foods were adopted by non-Westerners as a result of colonization and trade efforts in other parts of the world. In this way, for example, chili peppers were transported to India and corn and cassava to Africa. Eventually, many Old World foods were brought to the Americas by explorers and settlers, either out of consumption needs or a desire to profit from crop production. These plants and animals thrived in the New World and are still incorporated into modern America's food cultures. Beef, touted as one of America's most iconic foods, is not native to the New World. Cattle introduced to the Americas by Europeans thrived in their new environment and thrived in remarkable numbers. This growth, combined with the European introduction of horses, not only gave rise to modern cowboy cultures in North and South America, but also contributed to deforestation and the destruction of native crops. The introduction of other crops into America, such as wheat, rice, sugar, and coffee, had similarly dramatic results and mixed benefits in the New World.
Texts from the 17th century reveal much about this intricate interdependence of foods and their origins, as well as praise and criticism of these foods in today's diet.
exploitation of resources and labour
The exchange of food between continents enriched diets and cuisines around the world. Diets became more varied and therefore more nutritious, and the kitchen benefited from research into new ingredients. However, the Colombian stock market was not without its downsides. A big stain on this food exchange was slavery. All food production, from growing to processing and cooking food, requires labor. As explorers and missionaries made voyages to the New World, they identified resources that would be viable in the Old World, such as cocoa, coffee, sugar, rice, and tobacco. Later, colonists exploited these resources and introduced new crops that were valuable throughout Europe. To sustain a large-scale effort, Europeans introduced slavery to the New World, conquering and enslaving millions of Native Americans and West Africans over several centuries. The institution of slavery became so ingrained in New World cultures that slave labor remained a fundamental part of the American economy long after colonies had given way to independently ruled countries.
Books were printed to persuade Europeans to become investors and plantation owners. The excerpt above is from one such text. Ligon's paper, encouraging people to get involved in Barbados' sugar industry, touted the merits of a particular area and outlined financial incentives. The English colonized Barbados and other Caribbean islands; Planters and investors made fortunes in this region growing and processing sugar. The sugar didn't come from the Caribbean. Because of the ideal growing conditions, the Europeans brought sugar to America. While Europeans had long admired and consumed sugar, the Age of Exploration was the first time they could gain control of all sugar production and sales. Sugar was incredibly valuable; Not only was it important as part of edible foods, but it was also a necessary complement to drinking tea, chocolate, and coffee, all of which grew in popularity over the same period. The successful cultivation and processing of sugar cane, like many other New World cash crops, was made possible only by slave labor.
- Alfred Crosby,The Colombian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492(Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1972).
- Rebecca Earle, "Colombian Exchange", inThe Oxford Handbook of Food History, Hrsg. Jeffrey Pilcher (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 341–357.
- Nelson Foster and Linda Cordell, eds.Chiles al Chocolate: Food America Gave the World(Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992).
- Sucheta Mazumdar, "The Impact of New World Food Crops on the Diet and Economy of China and India, 1600-1900", infood in world history, Hrsg. Raymond Grew (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999), 58–78.
- Redcliffe Salaman,History and social influence of the potato(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1949).
VonDra. Sarah Peters Kernan
Independent academic and public historian
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Arepas - Arepas are arguably the most famous part of Colombian cuisine. They're like empanadas in that they're made with either white or yellow corn tortillas, but arepas don't have any fillings.What is the Colombian stock market called? ›
Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (BVC) (Colombian Stock Exchange)What foods does Colombia export? ›
|Top 10 U.S. Agricultural Exports to Colombia (values in million USD)|
|Pork & Products||102||222|
The Latin American Integrated Market (MILA) began operations on May 30, 2011, bringing together the Colombian Stock Exchange, the Santiago Stock Exchange, the Lima Stock Exchange and the Mexican Stock Exchange as well as deceval, DCV, CAVALI and INDEVAL depositories into a single market.What is a popular snack in Colombia? ›
Empanadas are a popular snack food in most Latin American countries and Colombia is no exception. In Colombia, though, the most popular empanadas are made with corn flour, filled with beef, potatoes, or cheese and fried or til there are impeccably crispy.What is Colombia's national food? ›
In fact, it is so well-loved that it has been adopted as Colombia's national dish. This hearty meal usually contains white rice, red beans, ground or minced beef, plantain, chorizo sausage, corn, pork crackling, fried egg, an arepa and usually half an avocado.
The New York Stock Exchange is the largest stock exchange in the world, with an equity market capitalization of nearly 23 trillion U.S. dollars as of December 2022. The following three exchanges were the NASDAQ, the Shanghai Stock Exchange, and the Euronext. What is a stock exchange?Which country is famous for stock market? ›
- Find an online broker. First, you need to make sure that the broker you're looking at is available in Colombia. ...
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|Top 10 U.S. Agricultural Exports to Colombia (values in million USD)|
In 2021, of the $13.2 billion in U.S. imports from Colombia, the top commodity sectors were Oils and Minerals, Lime, and Cement (41.3%), Agricultural Goods (26.2%), and Stone, Glass, Metals, and Pearls (14.4%).What are Colombia's top 3 exports? ›
Exports The top exports of Colombia are Crude Petroleum ($7.46B), Coal Briquettes ($4.13B), Coffee ($2.54B), Gold ($2.34B), and Refined Petroleum ($1.55B), exporting mostly to United States ($9.55B), China ($2.8B), Ecuador ($1.51B), Panama ($1.43B), and Brazil ($1.28B).Can US citizens buy in Colombia? ›
Foreigners can buy property in either their own name or in the name of a company and have all the same rights to ownership as Colombian citizens. All you need to buy real estate in Colombia is a passport.What are 3 major industries in Colombia? ›
Petroleum is Colombia's main export, representing over 45% of Colombia's exports. Manufacturing represents nearly 12% of Colombia's exports, and grows at a rate of over 10% a year. Colombia has the fastest growing information technology industry in the world, and has the longest fibre optic network in Latin America.What should I invest in Colombia? ›
Colombia offers great investment opportunities in manufacturing industries, for example in the automotive and textile sectors. The latter enjoys world recognition for its great quality and durability.What candy is Colombia known for? ›
Supercoco. There's no talking about Colombian candy and snacks without talking about Supercoco. Around since the 1950s, these chewy caramel candies with pieces of shredded coconut started with a family recipe that was itself inspired by the traditional cocadas, or coconut candy, made in Cartagena.What does Colombia eat for breakfast? ›
While the Colombian traditional breakfast is fading away in some places due to the nature of modern lifestyles, many Colombians continue to eat traditional regional breakfasts which can include tamales (Tolima, Bogotá, Boyacá), hot chocolate with cheese and artisanal breads (interior departments), changua (a milk and ...What is the most famous dessert in Colombia? ›
Postre de Natas (Milk Pudding)
Colombia's milk pudding is one of the country's most popular desserts, thought to have originated in the Andean region. It's made by boiling milk to form cream (nata) and mixing it with syrup, milk and eggs before throwing in some rum and raisins for extra flavor.
Being a tropical and isothermal country, you'll find a wide range of tropical fruits in Colombia like lulo, papaya, cape gooseberry, feijoa, guava, and passion fruit. Arepas and patacones are important side dishes while bandeja paisa, sancocho, and ajiaco are widely considered to be national dishes.Is Colombian food similar to Mexican? ›
Colombian food couldn't be more different from Mexican food, and is quite unique when compared to food from other Andean and Latin American countries.
Huevos Pericos is one of Colombia's most popular breakfast dishes. It is a simple and quick scrambled egg recipe that incorporates scallions or green onions and tomatoes. It traditionally is served along with arepas and Colombian cheese.Which is the fastest growing stock market in the world? ›
India stands out as the fastest-growing of the large global economies and the most resilient stock market - BusinessToday - Issue Date: Nov 13, 2022.Which is the oldest stock market in the world? ›
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the Economy? Based on a comparison of 76 countries in 2020, Hong Kong ranked the highest in market capitalisation of listed companies as of GDP with 1,777% followed by Belgium and Iran.What is the safest investment in the world? ›
U.S. Treasury bonds are widely considered the safest investments on earth. Because the United States government has never defaulted on its debt, investors see U.S. Treasuries as highly secure investment vehicles.Who owns the most stocks in the world? ›
The natural stock pick held by the world's wealthiest person is Microsoft (NASDAQ:MSFT), the giant tech company Bill Gates co-founded with Paul Allen in 1975. Gates still owns almost 103 million shares of the company worth $15.4 billion.Should I invest in Colombia? ›
Colombia also actively promotes and encourages foreign investment by maintaining a robust legal system, an open economy, and a variety of investment incentives. Potential investors enjoy benefits that include: A stable investment environment. Free trade agreements with much of the world.Can foreigners invest in Colombia? ›
As a foreigner, you can indeed buy property in Colombia. The Colombian government recognises the importance of foreign investment and has made the process easy for foreign individuals to buy property in Colombia.Where can I buy stock in Colombia? ›
Interactive Brokers is the best international online brokers in Colombia in 2023. - Low trading fees.What does Colombia export to USA? ›
The value of the top five categories of U.S. imports from Colombia –– Oil; Coffee; Gold; Fresh-cut flowers; and Gasoline, other fuels –– accounted for 71.79 percent of all inbound shipments.
The primary agricultural products of Colombia are coffee (the country is the fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world), cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables, fique, panela, forest products; and shrimp.What are the top 3 imports of Colombia? ›
Colombia main imports are: machinery and transport equipment (39 percent of total imports); manufactured products (22 percent); chemicals and related products (17 percent); fuel, mineral lubricants and related products (10 percent) and food and livestock (8 percent).What does Colombia trade the most? ›
Colombia´s economy is highly dependent on exports of commodities. Oil and coal exports account for 59 percent of total shipments and gold for 5 percent. Yet, in recent years, other products such as chemicals, machinery and cut flowers have been gaining importance.What is the best product to import to USA? ›
Petroleum is the most popular import in 12 states, making it the most common import across America. In 2021, about 72% of imported petroleum was crude oil, which was then domestically refined into products like gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel.Does the US have a good relationship with Colombia? ›
The relationship between Colombia and the United States evolved from a mutual cordiality during the 19th and early 20th centuries to a recent partnership that links the governments of both nations around several key issues; this includes fighting communism, the War on Drugs, and the threat of terrorism due to the ...What products is Colombia known for? ›
- Wooden speakers. ...
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- Butterflies. ...
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- Cloth books.
Colombia's major exports are petroleum, coffee, coal, nickel, cut flowers, and bananas. The United States is Colombia's largest trading partner, representing about 41% of Colombia's exports and 27% of its imports.Who is Colombia's biggest trade partner? ›
|Exporter||Trade (US$ Mil)||Partner share(%)|
U.S. citizens do not need a Colombian visa for a tourist or business stay of 90 days or less, or for cumulative stays of 180 days or less per calendar year. Before your 90-day stay expires, you may request an extension of up to 90 additional days from the Colombian immigration authority (Migración Colombia).Can a US citizen retire in Colombia? ›
Colombia is a South American country that welcomes foreign retirees every year.
As a matter of fact, the national average salary in Colombia is 4,690,000 COP (1,059.83 USD) per month. The average rates in the country are generally the baseline of how much Colombian workers typically earn, and it varies due to different factors.What is Colombia the largest producer of? ›
Colombia, long the world's largest cocaine producer, had a record 504,100 acres of coca plants — enough to make 1,400 metric tons of cocaine — under cultivation at the end of 2021, according to a report released Thursday by the United Nations Office on Drug and Crime.What is Colombia known as the world's largest producer of? ›
Colombia, the world's biggest producer of cocaine, is rethinking the war on drugs which it has waged for decades backed by US military aid.Is there a lot of poverty in Colombia? ›
Monetary poverty increased in Colombia, going from 34.7 percent in 2018 based on official poverty rates (and using the new poverty methodology) to 35.7 percent in 2019, resulting in an additional 662,000 thousand people falling into poverty.What should I invest $10000 into? ›
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COLCAP is the main stock market index of the Colombia Stock Exchange since November 2013 when it replaced IGBC as the leading index for Colombia.What type of market does Colombia have? ›
Colombia has a pro-market economic system in which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. Colombia is a member of the Andean Community (ANCOM).What market is Latam? ›
LATAM Market is our onboard food and beverage purchasing service which you can enjoy on all of our national flights within Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and South American regional routes of up to 3.5 hours. Learn more in the section Experience onboard.
NYSE Arca is an electronic securities exchange where exchange-traded products and securities are traded. The exchange was previously known as Archipelago Exchange (ArcaEX) until 2006 when it was acquired by the New York Stock Exchange.What are the 3 main stocks? ›
There are approximately 5,000 U.S. indexes. The three most widely followed indexes in the U.S. are the S&P 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average, and Nasdaq Composite.What are the top 5 industries in Colombia? ›
|Main industries||textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds, shipbuilding, electronics industry, home appliance|
|Ease-of-doing-business rank||67th (easy, 2020)|
|Exports||$39.48 billion (2017 est.)|
Colombia is classified as an upper middle-income economy and is one of Latin America's largest economies, according to the International Monetary Fund. The country's economy is shaped by its land and like many South American nations is based in its rich natural resources.What are the three main products of Colombia? ›
Colombia's major exports are petroleum, coffee, coal, nickel, cut flowers, and bananas. The United States is Colombia's largest trading partner, representing about 41% of Colombia's exports and 27% of its imports.Will LATAM stock go up? ›
Stock Price Forecast
The 4 analysts offering 12-month price forecasts for LATAM Airlines Group SA have a median target of 0.47, with a high estimate of 1.70 and a low estimate of 0.02. The median estimate represents a -7.84% decrease from the last price of 0.51.
Enjoy the cuisine on board that offers different food services, depending on the flight duration and cabin. Also, learn about the features and benefits of each of our cabins.Who is LATAM owned by? ›
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NYSE Arca was formed when the NYSE acquired the Archipelago ECN in 2006. 1 While both NYSE and NYSE Arca are now owned by the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE), they remain separate and distinct subsidiaries.
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